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Cumandá - Un drama entre salvajes - cover

Cumandá - Un drama entre salvajes

Juan León Mera

Publisher: Linkgua

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Summary

Tres hilos temáticos conforman esta novela de Juan León Mera: el amor, el indio y la selva. El subtítulo lo advierte y la narración se perfila entre pasiones, huidas, persecuciones y sacrificios. Novela fundadora de la narrativa ecuatoriana, Cumandá es también ejemplar heredera de la tradición romántica latinoamericana. A su manera, le da continuidad y la reorganiza, y así el amor imposible de una india y un blanco se engarza con la figura del buen salvaje; y juntos abren el universo sublime y misterioso de la selva. No falta la intriga, tampoco la sorpresa. Aquí están los ecos de esas mujeres imaginadas en María de Jorge Isaacs, en Cecilia de Cirilo Villaverde o en Amalia de José Marmol, en cuyos cuerpo se pergeñaban proyectos biopolíticos y programas civilizatorios. Pero también encontramos un diálogo con los textos de aquellos exploradores a la vez admirados y aterrados frente a la naturaleza americana, con las crónicas del Nuevo Mundo y con las Tradiciones, esas ingeniosas reconstrucciones del pasado que Ricardo Palma llevó a su cúspide. No son menos interesantes los modos en que Juan León Mera impugna las teorías sobre la inferioridad del indio (Buffon, Montesquieu, Robertson, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento o José Ingenieros) y a la vez pone en jaque todas aquellas concepciones de origen roussoniano, que enarbolaban al indio como un otro deseado y lo convertían en estandarte que aseguraba el sueño colonial de América como un lugar ideal, virgen e impoluto. Queda por decidir si Cumandá se ubica a caballo entre una corriente indianista que insiste en una imagen exótica, decorativa y folclórica del indio, y una corriente indigenista que lo pone en el centro del escenario, le da voz y se hace eco de su complejo universo cultural. En todo caso, esta novela reúne muchas de las interrogantes que han acompañado y aún acompañan el devenir de Ecuador y de América Latina: los proyectos de Modernidad y sus dificultades, la identidad nacional y sus homogeneizaciones, la problemática del indio y la confluencia de razas y culturas, la modernización y capitalización de las economías locales, la gobernabilidad y el biopoder, la naturaleza y la gestión ecológica.

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